Groundwater Modeling as an Example of Modeling As A Product (MAAP) - Advantages and Limitations

On a conversation with a colleague we have discussed the potential of selling groundwater modeling through the Internet. The idea (that is not so new) to develop groundwater models from remote areas optimizing the human resources, logistics and time involved on the evaluations its kind of the next step in numerical modeling but it has some arguments to be discussed for its implementation. From the management point of view, if we focus on mass production from and if we take into account theoretical concepts of business administration the idea of outsourcing tasks can be ideal for the success of a company or industry; however from the hydrogeological point of view there are serious complexities on the groundwater flow regime analysis, limitations on the input data and skills deficiencies that put the hydrogeological evaluation in risk if we work a groundwater model online.

In a global world we can make video call to almost anywhere for a reasonable price and our need/disponibility of broadband is always increasing but our ideas are not well conected and the group ideas are more distant than religion beliefs, therefore the method of developing a groundwater model could be of great importance in the quality of the groundwater evaluation through numerical modeling. This article discuss some key aspects of developing a groundwater model as a product (MAAP) and review its advantages and limitations.

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Key Concepts for Groundwater Management in Arid Regions

If we compare the amount of hydrologist vs. the amount of hydrogeologist, we can see that there is a gap in between the number of specialists in surface water and groundwater. Traditionally, the hydrology as a academic course is related to surface hydrology while the underground hydrology (hydrogeology) has been scarcely treated in typical undergraduate or graduate studies. As a comparison with then chicken and the egg, the lower or less popular academic opportunities in hydrogeology has produced a limited number of groundwater specialist who deal with a limited sort of groundwater studies.

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What is the relevance of confined / unconfined aquifer type on groundwater flow?

Maybe confined or unconfined aquifer are terms that would sound familiar from your first hydrogeology class, however it´s a simple definition about the location of the hydraulic head over the vertical limits of your aquifer. It might be that you have employed those terms in different reports, or maybe you have seen this aquifer classification on some environmental impact assessments or geological reports, but which is the relevance of this classification on the groundwater flow? This article talks about the comparison of the the confined / unconfined aquifer condition based on numerical modeling with some discussion about the convertible character of the aquifer.

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Tutorial: Example Problem of MODFLOW with Model Muse

This example problem is adapted from the MODFLOW documentation and use to demostrate the use of MODFLOW with Model Muse. The model is implemented without parameters and uses the LPF Package. The model decribes a regional aquifer setup with acuifers and aquitards with the interaction of many boundary conditions as recharge, evapotranspiration, constant head and wells. Groundwater flow simulation was done on steady state conditions.

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Multiple Well Configuration in MODFLOW with Model Muse Tutorial

Modflow with Model Muse are a powerful set of softwares developed by the USGS for groundwater modeling. Model Muse is very handy when working with GIS files but sometimes there are some specific requirements about the hydrogeologic features to conceptualize. This time we have prepared a tutorial about the multiple well configuration on a regional groundwater model. The tutorial deals with the model construction and configuration of 182 pumping wells on a 84km x 54km area in the north of Mexico.

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How to insert a Geological Fracture on a Hydrogeological Model with MODFLOW and Model Muse

Model Muse is a software for the pre and post data processing of hydrogeological 3D model in MODFLOW. Both Model Muse and MODFLOW are developed by the USGS (usgs.gov). Model Muse is designed to work with objects and datasets, a powerful model construction methodology that allows the quick setup of boundary conditions, a simple way of progressive refinement and interesting features as inserting geological fractures on the numerical model.

This tutorial show the whole procedure for the conceptualization of several fractures based on some known fracture information as a point on the fractures, the azimuth and elevation. The tutorial deals with the theorethical determination of the fracture plane equation, the construction of a dataset with the desired equation plus the implementation of object that represents the fracture with the relevant hydrogeological features.

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Tutorial of a Cross Seccion of Water Quality with MODFLOW, MT3DMS y QGIS

Groundwater flow modeling depends on GIS data, and its output is compatible with a sort of GIS tools. In order to do analysis or representation from contaminant transport modeling it is needed a sort of commands, formats, tools and plugins from a stack of programs as ModelMuse and QGIS.

This tutorial is not only a example of water quality representation, it is as well a discussión on the main parts of modeling construction and simulation.

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How to insert a Geological Contact in MODFLOW with MODEL MUSE

Model Muse and QGIS makes possible to deal with geological data for the groundwater flow model cocntstruction. A diverse group of tools are required to process and insert geological features as contacts or faults. This tutorial show the whole procedure from the ground up to build the model geometry and insert a geological contact as the interfase within two layers.

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Recharge Estimation by Daily Precipitation with MODFLOW UZF and Python

The processes of the superficial and groundwater water cycle are related to the precipitation (shape and intensity) and the dynamic of soil moisture. This dynamic of soil moisture is determined by the type of soil and the root zone in a daily, or even hourly, temporal scale. These phenomena have not been considered or studied in conventional hydrogeology text books, maybe because of their intensive use of modeling tools and complex conceptualizations and validations.

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Using GRIDGEN V 1.0 to Generate Unstructured Grids

GRIDGEN is a program developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to create unstructured grids to be used in numerical models such as MODFLOW-USG.

The use of unstructured grids has advantages, like the capacity of refining specific areas. However, its design and manipulation is more complicated than in structured grids. The most complex step is the creation of input data, specifically the ones related to cell connectivity. For this reason, GRIDGEN is an useful tool that helps to simplify the process.

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Tutorial: How to convert MODFLOW-2005 files to MODFLOW-6 format

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has just released a new MODFLOW version: MODFLOW-6. This one comes with new functionalities to make it easier to create input files and perform simulations. Among the downloaded MODFLOW-6 files, there is an executable file to convert MODFLOW-2005 files to the new MODFLOW-6 format. In this tutorial we will show you how to do this.

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Learn about MODFLOW's latest version: MODFLOW 6

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has just released the latest MODFLOW version: MODFLOW 6. It is the sixth core version of MODFLOW to be released by the USGS (previous core versions were released in 1984, 1988, 1996, 2000, and 2005).

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An overview of Freewat, the new MODFLOW interface in QGIS

A new and fresh opensource preprocessing and post processing tool is available. Freewat 0.4 was launched as a beta version and publicly available upon registration from this website: http://freewat.eu/. Most of the developers are italian and the project is funded under the H2020 program from the European Union and the Regione Toscana. The software comes with clear and descriptive documentation and tutorials plus the installation instructions. 
This article show the most important features of Freewat and its capabilities for representing the geospatially referenced regional groundwater flow.

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7 Solved Questions about Conceptualization, Construction and Calibration of Hydrogeological Models

Constructing and calibrating numerical models can be a challenging task in terms of time, available data and professional abilities of the modeler. Since this work is usually done alone, there are many questions about the conceptualization of the physical environment, the construction of the model and the calibration with observed data. Based on the questions asked by some attendees of our webminars, we have written this article for all the confused hydrogeological modelers.

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Key concepts for modeling groundwater flow driven by geothermal energy

For most hydrogeologists numerical modeling of groundwater flow is still new and brings several challenges when dealing with input data, model construction and simulation. Most of our modeling efforts are done in gravity driven groundwater flow on shallow aquifers solved by Darcy law equations. Sometimes we excel ourselves in conceptualizing "advanced" topics as unsaturated flow, contaminant transport, variable density or baseflow calibration. What about if we consider another driving force besides gravity? Will out lives be happier/miserable? Could we cope with the huge amount of required data?

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How relevant is evapotranspiration in the groundwater flow regime?

Evapotranspiration is the mixed process of soil evaporation and transpiration of plants. This process is not included in many Hydrology books or in hydrological methods like the rational method, SCS, among others. Evapotranspiration is not relevant in when calculating maximum floods, but it is considered in water balances of superficial water and groundwater.

This article shows the relevance of the evapotranspiration process in the conceptualization and modeling of groundwater, indicating which would be the errors and inaccuracies of not considering this process.

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What data do you need for hydrogeological modeling?

A hydrogeological evaluation needs a numerical representation of the groundwater flow regime. Numerical models are a great tool to evaluate the current and future conditions of groundwater flow. In order to make a model, it is necessary to have geological and climate data, among other types.

The following list describes the input data needed to carry out a hydrogeological modeling. The information required could be either in tabular or vectorial format.

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Cost (& Time) optimization of hydrogeological studies

Impact on groundwater flow from mining facilities could be evaluated many times along the different mining phases, many of these evaluations are done by different consultant companies. This post is focused on strategies and best practices for cost (& time) optimization, specially for hydrogeological investigation on mining projects. 

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Importance of numerical modeling

In the actual society, the environmental aspects are a concern when planning projects related to water resources. In this context, numerical models are useful tools to represent the superficial water and groundwater cycle and determine the contamination effects.

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